Does the Voice Matter? Impact of Voice-Over Instructions on Task Acquisition and Prompting Levels in Video Prompting

Total views: 206 | Open access Open Access



video prompting, voice-over instruction, daily living skills, intellectual impairment


Introduction: Opportunities are increasing for individuals with disabilities to live independently. Video prompting is important to increasing independence through observation and imitation of specific behaviors or skills. However, the impact of voice-over instructions has yet to be studied.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of voice-over instructions on teaching daily living skills to three individuals with disabilities via video prompting.

Method: A single-subject adapted alternating treatment design was used. Two versions of each intervention video were created by the researchers and alternated: one without and one with step-by-step voice-over instructions. Four skills were selected: (a) making a bowl of oatmeal, (b) microwaving popcorn, (c) starting a load of laundry, and (d) cleaning the microwave. Data were also collected on the number of prompts to use technology and the number of views for each step.

Results: Results showed that the presence of voice-over instructions led to higher levels of task acquisition for all the participants. The number of prompts to use technology decreased for two of the individuals after exposure to both instruction types. The number of views did not appear to be related to the presence of voice-over instructions.

Conclusion: Video prompting, with or without voice-over instructions, is an effective way to teach daily living skills and promote independence to individuals with intellectual disabilities.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Ryan Kellems, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA

Associate Professor in the CPSE department


Allen, K. D., Burke, R. V., Howard, M. R., Wallace, D. P., & Bowen, S. L. (2012). Use of audio cuing to expand employment opportunities for adolescents with autism spectrum disor-ders and intellectual disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(11), 2410–2419.

Banda, D. R., Dogoe, M. S., & Matuszny, R. M. (2011). Review of video prompting studies with persons with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and De-velopmental Disabilities, 46(4), 514-527.

Bennett, K. D., Crocco, C., Loughrey, T. O., & McDowell, L. S. (2017). Effects of video prompting without voice-over narration among students with autism spectrum disor-der. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 22(1), 147–158.

Bennett, K. D., Gutierrez, A., Jr., & Honsberger, T. (2013). A comparison of video prompting with and without voice-over narration on the clerical skills of adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1273–1281.

Bruininks, R. H., Woodcock, R. W., Weatherman, R. F., & Hill, B. K. (1996). Scales of Inde-pendent Behavior – Revised. Riverside Pub-lishing Co.

Cannella-Malone, H., Sigafoos, J., O'Reilly, M., de la Cruz, B., Edrisinha, C., & Lancioni, G. E. (2006). Comparing video prompting to video modeling for teaching daily living skills to six adults with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41(4), 344-356.

Cihak, D. F., Kessler, K., & Alberto, P. A. (2008). Use of a handheld prompting system to tran-sition independently through vocational tasks for students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities. Education and Train-ing in Developmental Disabilities, 43(1), 102-110.

Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2009). Senso-ry processing in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 13(3), 215-228.

Day-Watkins, J., Pallathra, A. A., Connell, J. E., & Brodkin, E. S. (2018). Behavior skills train-ing with voice-over video modeling. Journal of Organizational Behavioral Management, 38(2-3), 258-273.

Dillon, L. H. (2019, August 9). How to calculate interobserver agreement. Applied Behavior Analysis. Retrieved December 9, 2022, from,total%20number%20of%20intervals%20and%20multiply%20by%20100

Kaya, F., & Yucesoy-Ozkan, S. (2022). Self-directed video prompting with and without voice-over narration in teaching daily living skills to students with autism spectrum dis-order. Education and Treatment of Children, 45, 1-15.

Kellems, R. O., & Morningstar, M. E. (2012). Us-ing video modeling delivered through iPods to teach vocational tasks to young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Career De-velopment and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 35(3), 155-167.

Mason, R. A., Ganz, J. B., Parker, R. I., Burke, M. D., & Camargo, S. P. (2012). Moderating fac-tors of video-modeling with other as model: A meta-analysis of single-case studies. Re-search in Developmental Disabilities, 33(4), 1076-1086.

Matson, J. L., Hattier, M. A., & Belva, B. (2012). Treating adaptive living skills of persons with autism using applied behavior analysis: A review. Research in Autism Spectrum Dis-orders, 6(1), 271-276.

Mechling, L. C., Ayres, K. M., Foster, A. L., & Bry-ant, K. J. (2013). Comparing the effects of commercially available and custom-made video prompting for teaching cooking skills to high school students with autism. Remedi-al and Special Education, 34(6), 371-383.

Mechling, L. C., & Collins, T. S. (2012). Compari-son of the effects of video models with and without verbal cueing on task completion by young adults with moderate intellectual dis-ability. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(2), 223-235.

Park, J., Bouck, E., & Duenas, A. (2018). The ef-fect of video modeling and video prompting interventions on individuals with intellectual disability: A systematic literature review. Journal of Special Education Technology, 34(1).

Rayner, C. (2011). Teaching students with autism to tie a shoelace knot using video prompting and backward chaining. Developmental Neu-rorehabilitation, 14(6), 339-347.

Smith, M., Ayres, K., Mechling, L., & Smith, K. (2013). Comparison of the effects of video modeling with narration vs. video modeling on the functional skill acquisition of adoles-cents with autism. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(2), 164-178.

The Prevention Group (2012). VideoTote (Version 0.8.4) [Mobile application software]. Re-trieved from

Wendling, B. J., Mather, N., & Schrank, F. A. (2009). Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cog-nitive Abilities. In J. A. Naglieri & S. Gold-stein Eds., Practitioner's guide to assessing intelligence and achievement (pp. 191–229). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Wolery, M., Gast, D. L., & Hammond, D. (2010). Comparative intervention design. In D. L. Gast (Ed.), Single subject research method-ology in behavioral sciences (pp. 329–381). Routledge.


23.11.2023 — Ahead of print updated on 20.06.2024 as final version


How to Cite

Kellems, R., Clements, K., Osborne, K., & Dawson, K. (2024). Does the Voice Matter? Impact of Voice-Over Instructions on Task Acquisition and Prompting Levels in Video Prompting. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 3(1), 10–20. (Original work published November 23, 2023)



Autism Research